Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  FTP Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   

RGD DISEASE ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

RGD uses the Human Disease Ontology (DO, https://disease-ontology.org/) for disease curation across species. RGD automatically downloads each new release of the ontology on a monthly basis. Some additional terms which are required for RGD's curation purposes but are not currently covered in the official version of DO have been added. As corresponding terms are added to DO, these custom terms are retired and the DO terms substituted in existing annotations and subsequently used for curation.

Term:skin benign neoplasm
go back to main search page
Accession:DOID:3165 term browser browse the term
Definition:A benign proliferation in the skin.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: benign neoplasm of skin;   benign tumor of skin;   neoplasm of skin;   neoplasm of skin by site;   skin neoplasm;   tumor of the skin
 primary_id: RDO:9000113
 xref: NCI:C3372
For additional species annotation, visit the Alliance of Genome Resources.


GViewer not supported for chinchilla.
show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
 
skin benign neoplasm term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hras HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase ISO associated with Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn;DNA:mutation:cds:c.37G>C(p.G13R)(human) RGD PMID:22683711 RGD:11098548 NCBI chrNW_004955476:11,508,446...11,510,333
Ensembl chrNW_004955476:11,508,126...11,510,333
JBrowse link
G Ptch1 patched 1 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Tumor of the skin ClinVar PMID:30311386 NCBI chrNW_004955422:22,362,330...22,418,062
Ensembl chrNW_004955422:22,362,221...22,427,622
JBrowse link
angiokeratoma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gla galactosidase alpha ISO CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic CTD PMID:19925601 NCBI chrNW_004955503:7,526,077...7,535,817
Ensembl chrNW_004955503:7,521,930...7,535,817
JBrowse link
G Naga alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase ISO Kanzaki Disease, OMIM:609242, DNA:point mutation:exon:R329W RGD PMID:8040340 RGD:1600558 NCBI chrNW_004955413:27,463,931...27,472,273
Ensembl chrNW_004955413:27,461,998...27,472,273
JBrowse link
anogenital venereal wart term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ccl20 C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 ISO protein:decreased expression:skin RGD PMID:17545018 RGD:7483603 NCBI chrNW_004955453:6,846,625...6,850,007
Ensembl chrNW_004955453:6,846,549...6,850,031
JBrowse link
G Il12b interleukin 12B treatment ISO RGD PMID:16114559 RGD:7829774 NCBI chrNW_004955408:13,302,506...13,316,300
Ensembl chrNW_004955408:13,304,219...13,312,620
JBrowse link
G Il4 interleukin 4 treatment ISO RGD PMID:16114559 RGD:7829774 NCBI chrNW_004955408:4,058,052...4,065,999 JBrowse link
G Ptpn11 protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 ISO protein:increased expression:foreskin RGD PMID:18543080 RGD:39128248 NCBI chrNW_004955482:8,934,734...9,031,230
Ensembl chrNW_004955482:8,934,306...9,035,203
JBrowse link
G Ptpn6 protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 ISO protein:increased expression:foreskin RGD PMID:18543080 RGD:39128248 NCBI chrNW_004955413:4,525,954...4,547,177
Ensembl chrNW_004955413:4,525,954...4,547,177
JBrowse link
G Serpinf1 serpin family F member 1 disease_progression ISO mRNA, protein:decreased expression:skin of body (human) RGD PMID:23569025 RGD:27226706 NCBI chrNW_004955481:1,414,930...1,426,436
Ensembl chrNW_004955481:1,414,930...1,426,241
JBrowse link
capillary hemangioma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Col1a1 collagen type I alpha 1 chain ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Capillary hemangioma ClinVar PMID:25741868, PMID:30311386 NCBI chrNW_004955451:11,468,156...11,484,410
Ensembl chrNW_004955451:11,468,290...11,483,073
JBrowse link
G Npc1 NPC intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Capillary hemangiomas ClinVar PMID:25741868 NCBI chrNW_004955402:11,699,434...11,742,899
Ensembl chrNW_004955402:11,699,434...11,742,899
JBrowse link
Capillary Hemangioma, Infantile term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Antxr1 ANTXR cell adhesion molecule 1 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955424:15,820,734...16,034,278
Ensembl chrNW_004955424:15,824,435...16,033,946
JBrowse link
G Flt4 fms related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955408:98,995...137,922
Ensembl chrNW_004955408:107,056...140,056
JBrowse link
G Kdr kinase insert domain receptor ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955447:15,810,816...15,851,702
Ensembl chrNW_004955447:15,810,815...15,853,583
JBrowse link
G Myh9 myosin heavy chain 9 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hemangioma, capillary infantile ClinVar NCBI chrNW_004955413:22,881,759...22,972,182
Ensembl chrNW_004955413:22,881,045...22,972,450
JBrowse link
G Slc2a1 solute carrier family 2 member 1 ISO RGD PMID:17554865 RGD:12879502 NCBI chrNW_004955537:2,408,042...2,438,788
Ensembl chrNW_004955537:2,408,042...2,439,511
JBrowse link
cerebellar angioblastoma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Vhl von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Cerebellar hemangioblastoma ClinVar PMID:25741868, PMID:28492532 NCBI chrNW_004955561:1,573,525...1,578,295 JBrowse link
epidermodysplasia verruciformis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Tmc6 transmembrane channel like 6 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
CTD
ClinVar
PMID:15042430, PMID:17139267, PMID:25741868, PMID:28492532 NCBI chrNW_004955506:4,422,658...4,435,671
Ensembl chrNW_004955506:4,424,023...4,435,400
JBrowse link
G Tmc8 transmembrane channel like 8 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis ClinVar PMID:12426567, PMID:22158547, PMID:25741868, PMID:28492532 NCBI chrNW_004955506:4,412,478...4,423,397
Ensembl chrNW_004955506:4,412,484...4,422,520
JBrowse link
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis 1 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Tmc6 transmembrane channel like 6 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955506:4,422,658...4,435,671
Ensembl chrNW_004955506:4,424,023...4,435,400
JBrowse link
G Tmc8 transmembrane channel like 8 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: EPIDERMODYSPLASIA VERRUCIFORMIS, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1 ClinVar PMID:25741868, PMID:28492532 NCBI chrNW_004955506:4,412,478...4,423,397
Ensembl chrNW_004955506:4,412,484...4,422,520
JBrowse link
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis 2 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Tmc8 transmembrane channel like 8 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955506:4,412,478...4,423,397
Ensembl chrNW_004955506:4,412,484...4,422,520
JBrowse link
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis 3 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cib1 calcium and integrin binding 1 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955416:15,102,632...15,106,372
Ensembl chrNW_004955416:15,102,632...15,106,372
JBrowse link
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis 4 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Rhoh ras homolog family member H susceptibility ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: EPIDERMODYSPLASIA VERRUCIFORMIS, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 4 OMIM
ClinVar
PMID:22850876 NCBI chrNW_004955443:7,227,751...7,269,984
Ensembl chrNW_004955443:7,227,751...7,264,821
JBrowse link
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis 5 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Il7 interleukin 7 susceptibility ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: EPIDERMODYSPLASIA VERRUCIFORMIS, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 5 OMIM
ClinVar
PMID:25981006 NCBI chrNW_004955444:2,365,077...2,400,953 JBrowse link
hemangioblastoma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hif1a hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:15341671 NCBI chrNW_004955466:8,000,311...8,022,497
Ensembl chrNW_004955466:8,000,044...8,022,497
JBrowse link
G Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated 1 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:15341671 NCBI chrNW_004955461:7,787,068...7,836,380
Ensembl chrNW_004955461:7,786,850...7,836,922
JBrowse link
leiomyoma cutis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Fh fumarate hydratase ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas ClinVar PMID:11865300, PMID:12761039, PMID:16575891, PMID:21929734, PMID:22069215, PMID:22595425, PMID:22703879, PMID:24728327, PMID:25741868, PMID:27037871, PMID:28492532, PMID:29909963, PMID:30967997 NCBI chrNW_004955406:10,535,801...10,558,649
Ensembl chrNW_004955406:10,535,323...10,561,627
JBrowse link
Malignant Granular Cell Tumor term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Brd7 bromodomain containing 7 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: malignant granular cell tumor ClinVar NCBI chrNW_004955433:8,425,976...8,462,431
Ensembl chrNW_004955433:8,424,949...8,461,802
JBrowse link
Muir-Torre syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Mlh1 mutL homolog 1 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955421:3,890,291...3,936,892
Ensembl chrNW_004955421:3,890,306...3,936,526
JBrowse link
G Msh2 mutS homolog 2 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955441:14,188,315...14,247,608
Ensembl chrNW_004955441:14,187,805...14,247,698
JBrowse link
Nasopalpebral Lipoma Coloboma Syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Zdbf2 zinc finger DBF-type containing 2 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Nasopalpebral lipoma coloboma syndrome ClinVar PMID:23636874, PMID:27139419 NCBI chrNW_004955457:8,660,448...8,688,116 JBrowse link
pilomatrixoma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ctnnb1 catenin beta 1 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955420:29,030,716...29,047,447
Ensembl chrNW_004955420:29,030,716...29,047,449
JBrowse link
G Mutyh mutY DNA glycosylase ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: MUTYH-associated polyposis
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: EPITHELIOMA CALCIFICANS OF MALHERBE
ClinVar PMID:2084865, PMID:3561487, PMID:11818965, PMID:12393807, PMID:12606733, PMID:12853198, PMID:15188161, PMID:15236166, PMID:15366000, PMID:15635083, PMID:15890374, PMID:15931596, PMID:15987719, PMID:16134147, PMID:16140997, PMID:16207212, PMID:16287072, PMID:16338133, PMID:16455870, PMID:16492921, PMID:16557584, PMID:16616356, PMID:16890597, PMID:16941501, PMID:17081686, PMID:17122612, PMID:17161978, PMID:17219385, PMID:17273161, PMID:17368238, PMID:17369389, PMID:17489848, PMID:17581577, PMID:17674103, PMID:17703316, PMID:17874208, PMID:17931073, PMID:17949294, PMID:17956577, PMID:18091433, PMID:18301448, PMID:18414213, PMID:18422726, PMID:18495334, PMID:18506705, PMID:18515411, PMID:18534194, PMID:18564191, PMID:18787472, PMID:18992148, PMID:19032956, PMID:19245865, PMID:19279422, PMID:19394335, PMID:19506731, PMID:19527492, PMID:19531215, PMID:19725997, PMID:19732775, PMID:19793053, PMID:19806110, PMID:19836313, PMID:19953527, PMID:19998059, PMID:20063264, PMID:20418187, PMID:20618354, PMID:20663686, PMID:20725929, PMID:20848659, PMID:21063410, PMID:21171015, PMID:21178863, PMID:21443744, PMID:21520333, PMID:21815886, PMID:21952991, PMID:22158503, PMID:22266422, PMID:22297469, PMID:22473953, PMID:22538434, PMID:22703879, PMID:22744763, PMID:22773231, PMID:22865608, PMID:22926731, PMID:22976915, PMID:23035301, PMID:23108399, PMID:23322991, PMID:23361220, PMID:23507534, PMID:23561487, PMID:23605219, PMID:23625202, PMID:23729658, PMID:23805267, PMID:24033266, PMID:24082139, PMID:24278394, PMID:24444654, PMID:24470512, PMID:24569162, PMID:24691292, PMID:24728327, PMID:24763289, PMID:24799981, PMID:24953332, PMID:25368107, PMID:25525159, PMID:25590978, PMID:25637381, PMID:25741868, PMID:25820570, PMID:25892863, PMID:25980754, PMID:26446593, PMID:26467025, PMID:26556299, PMID:26673696, PMID:26681312, PMID:26689913, PMID:26694661, PMID:26822237, PMID:26845104, PMID:26902849, PMID:27145315, PMID:27194394, PMID:27705013, PMID:27829682, PMID:27870730, PMID:28135145, PMID:28141798, PMID:28152038, PMID:28251689, PMID:28492532, PMID:28533537, PMID:28634180, PMID:29330641, PMID:29406563, PMID:29478780, PMID:30311386, PMID:30487145 NCBI chrNW_004955464:12,927,669...12,936,894 JBrowse link
G Ovol1 ovo like transcriptional repressor 1 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:26873447 NCBI chrNW_004955422:19,524,420...19,528,938
Ensembl chrNW_004955422:19,522,384...19,534,450
JBrowse link
G Ovol2 ovo like zinc finger 2 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:26873447 NCBI chrNW_004955415:26,825,284...26,843,438
Ensembl chrNW_004955415:26,825,284...26,843,438
JBrowse link
Pulmonary Venoocclusive Disease 2 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Eif2ak4 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955416:6,897,897...7,005,602
Ensembl chrNW_004955416:6,897,848...7,009,965
JBrowse link
Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Wnt10a Wnt family member 10A ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955453:14,528,373...14,540,801
Ensembl chrNW_004955453:14,528,153...14,540,818
JBrowse link
sebaceous gland neoplasm term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cdkn1a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A ISO RGD PMID:12354803 RGD:8662839 NCBI chrNW_004955437:6,254,638...6,261,278
Ensembl chrNW_004955437:6,254,309...6,261,479
JBrowse link
G Lef1 lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:16565724 NCBI chrNW_004955496:1,728,840...1,827,749
Ensembl chrNW_004955496:1,728,840...1,828,698
JBrowse link
seborrheic keratosis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Anxa1 annexin A1 ISO RGD PMID:8919037 RGD:7421562 NCBI chrNW_004955512:5,686,508...5,703,645 JBrowse link
G Fgfr3 fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Keratosis Seborrheica ClinVar PMID:1908846, PMID:7773297, PMID:8589699, PMID:8858131, PMID:9677066, PMID:10073901, PMID:10471491, PMID:10696568, PMID:11038465, PMID:11241532, PMID:11529856, PMID:11879084, PMID:12833394, PMID:15772091, PMID:16841094, PMID:17384684, PMID:18642369, PMID:19381019, PMID:19749790, PMID:25157968, PMID:25606676, PMID:25741868, PMID:26619011, PMID:28492532, PMID:30311386 NCBI chrNW_004955514:1,030,244...1,038,590
Ensembl chrNW_004955514:1,025,600...1,038,590
JBrowse link
G Pik3ca phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955420:8,355,415...8,427,024
Ensembl chrNW_004955420:8,356,353...8,427,024
JBrowse link
skin papilloma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ccl20 C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 ISO protein:decreased expression:skin RGD PMID:21715145 RGD:7483622 NCBI chrNW_004955453:6,846,625...6,850,007
Ensembl chrNW_004955453:6,846,549...6,850,031
JBrowse link
G Clu clusterin ISO RGD PMID:11085517 RGD:8746700 NCBI chrNW_004955403:50,160,598...50,175,876
Ensembl chrNW_004955403:50,160,598...50,175,876
JBrowse link
G Nrg1 neuregulin 1 ISO DNA:hypermethylation: RGD PMID:31892232 RGD:39456089 NCBI chrNW_004955463:8,009,436...9,037,116
Ensembl chrNW_004955463:8,009,530...9,037,116
JBrowse link
G Tlr2 toll like receptor 2 ISO protein:increased expression,altered expression:cytoplasm,membrane, nucleus: RGD PMID:24617037 RGD:8553046 NCBI chrNW_004955471:8,011,710...8,019,063
Ensembl chrNW_004955471:8,014,910...8,017,258
JBrowse link
Trichilemmoma term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hras HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase ISO associated with Nevus sebaceous; DNA:mutation:exon:c.37G>C (p.G13R)(human) RGD PMID:24890286 RGD:12738400 NCBI chrNW_004955476:11,508,446...11,510,333
Ensembl chrNW_004955476:11,508,126...11,510,333
JBrowse link
von Hippel-Lindau disease term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ccnd1 cyclin D1 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955422:16,449,921...16,462,676
Ensembl chrNW_004955422:16,448,770...16,463,300
JBrowse link
G Epas1 endothelial PAS domain protein 1 ISO protein:increased expression:kidney: RGD PMID:22299048 RGD:11041600 NCBI chrNW_004955441:13,244,626...13,328,220
Ensembl chrNW_004955441:13,244,626...13,328,369
JBrowse link
G Slc18a1 solute carrier family 18 member A1 ISO mRNA:increased expression:tumor (human) RGD PMID:16189177 RGD:5131200 NCBI chrNW_004955403:43,821,978...43,848,403
Ensembl chrNW_004955403:43,821,296...43,848,399
JBrowse link
G Vhl von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955561:1,573,525...1,578,295 JBrowse link
WHIM syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cxcr4 C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 ISO OMIM NCBI chrNW_004955440:3,456,165...3,460,024
Ensembl chrNW_004955440:3,455,153...3,460,109
JBrowse link
G Dars1 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase 1 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis ClinVar PMID:28492532 NCBI chrNW_004955440:3,268,648...3,345,808
Ensembl chrNW_004955440:3,266,821...3,345,808
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  disease 11815
    sensory system disease 4549
      skin disease 2372
        Skin Neoplasms 213
          skin benign neoplasm 49
            Benign Skin Neoplasms, Epithelial + 16
            angiokeratoma of Fordyce + 0
            benign dermal neurilemmoma 0
            clear cell acanthoma 0
            cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma 0
            cutaneous ganglioneuroma 0
            dermis tumor + 1
            dermoid cyst of skin 0
            epidermal appendage tumor 0
            eyelid benign neoplasm + 2
            granular cell tumor + 1
            hair follicle neoplasm + 5
            sebaceous gland neoplasm + 4
            seborrheic keratosis + 3
            skin glomangioma + 0
            skin granular cell tumor 0
            skin hemangioma + 16
            skin lipoma 0
            skin meningioma 0
            sweat gland benign neoplasm + 0
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  disease 11815
    disease of anatomical entity 11368
      nervous system disease 9308
        sensory system disease 4549
          skin disease 2372
            Skin Neoplasms 213
              skin benign neoplasm 49
                Benign Skin Neoplasms, Epithelial + 16
                angiokeratoma of Fordyce + 0
                benign dermal neurilemmoma 0
                clear cell acanthoma 0
                cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma 0
                cutaneous ganglioneuroma 0
                dermis tumor + 1
                dermoid cyst of skin 0
                epidermal appendage tumor 0
                eyelid benign neoplasm + 2
                granular cell tumor + 1
                hair follicle neoplasm + 5
                sebaceous gland neoplasm + 4
                seborrheic keratosis + 3
                skin glomangioma + 0
                skin granular cell tumor 0
                skin hemangioma + 16
                skin lipoma 0
                skin meningioma 0
                sweat gland benign neoplasm + 0
paths to the root

NHLBI Logo

RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.