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ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS


Term:phenol-containing compound biosynthetic process
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Accession:GO:0046189 term browser browse the term
Definition:The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: phenol-containing compound anabolism;   phenol-containing compound biosynthesis;   phenol-containing compound formation;   phenol-containing compound synthesis


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catecholamine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Crhr2 corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 IMP RGD PMID:17194738 RGD:5131263 NCBI chr 4:85,286,371...85,329,374
Ensembl chr 4:85,286,372...85,329,362
JBrowse link
G Ddc dopa decarboxylase TAS
IEA
GO_REF:0000043 UniProt PMID:12047348 GO_REF:0000043, RGD:727571 NCBI chr14:91,905,919...91,996,816
Ensembl chr14:91,905,919...91,996,774
JBrowse link
G Hdc histidine decarboxylase IEA GO_REF:0000043 UniProt GO_REF:0000043 NCBI chr 3:119,057,524...119,075,599
Ensembl chr 3:119,057,517...119,075,619
JBrowse link
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase IDA RGD PMID:20025246 RGD:4139888 NCBI chr 1:216,073,034...216,080,287
Ensembl chr 1:216,073,031...216,080,287
JBrowse link
dopamine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Agtr1a angiotensin II receptor, type 1a IMP RGD PMID:20097214 RGD:6903884 NCBI chr17:35,907,102...35,958,136
Ensembl chr17:35,907,108...35,958,077
JBrowse link
G Agtr2 angiotensin II receptor, type 2 IMP RGD PMID:20097214 RGD:6903884 NCBI chr  X:119,389,480...119,393,845
Ensembl chr  X:119,390,013...119,393,842
JBrowse link
G Chrna7 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit IEP RGD PMID:12438507 RGD:704388 NCBI chr 1:123,897,341...124,039,263
Ensembl chr 1:123,899,657...124,039,196
JBrowse link
G Cyp2d4 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily d, polypeptide 4 IDA RGD PMID:19818757 RGD:5143981 NCBI chr 7:123,599,264...123,608,436
Ensembl chr 7:123,599,266...123,608,436
JBrowse link
G Dao D-amino-acid oxidase IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:17303072)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:17303072 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr12:48,353,691...48,373,647
Ensembl chr12:48,354,196...48,365,784
JBrowse link
G Ddc dopa decarboxylase IDA
IEA
GO_REF:0000041 UniProt PMID:12703659 GO_REF:0000041, RGD:4139893 NCBI chr14:91,905,919...91,996,816
Ensembl chr14:91,905,919...91,996,774
JBrowse link
G Gch1 GTP cyclohydrolase 1 ISO (PMID:16338639) RGD PMID:16338639 NCBI chr15:23,935,011...23,968,971
Ensembl chr15:23,934,585...23,969,011
JBrowse link
G Gpr37 G protein-coupled receptor 37 ISO MGI:MGI:3027995 (MGI:MGI:3046856|PMID:15218106) RGD PMID:15218106 MGI:MGI:3046856 NCBI chr 4:51,822,163...51,844,228
Ensembl chr 4:51,822,153...51,844,331
JBrowse link
G Nr4a2 nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
MGI:MGI:2429971 (MGI:MGI:1203924|PMID:9608532), (MGI:MGI:3767764|PMID:16782508)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:9608532, PMID:16782508 GO_REF:0000107, MGI:MGI:1203924, MGI:MGI:3767764 NCBI chr 3:43,111,258...43,128,391
Ensembl chr 3:43,111,240...43,119,159
JBrowse link
G Slc6a3 solute carrier family 6 member 3 ISO MGI:MGI:2386303 (MGI:MGI:2386819|PMID:9520487) RGD PMID:9520487 MGI:MGI:2386819 NCBI chr 1:32,323,011...32,363,983
Ensembl chr 1:32,321,580...32,363,983
JBrowse link
G Snca synuclein alpha ISO MGI:MGI:1888382 (MGI:MGI:1352916|PMID:10707987) RGD PMID:10707987 MGI:MGI:1352916 NCBI chr 4:90,782,412...90,883,236
Ensembl chr 4:90,782,374...90,882,285
JBrowse link
G Tgfb2 transforming growth factor, beta 2 ISO
ISS
(MGI:MGI:3622848|PMID:16257223)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
UniProt
PMID:16257223 GO_REF:0000024, MGI:MGI:3622848 NCBI chr13:105,039,639...105,142,010
Ensembl chr13:105,039,853...105,141,030
JBrowse link
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase ISO (PMID:12457228) RGD PMID:12457228 NCBI chr 1:216,073,034...216,080,287
Ensembl chr 1:216,073,031...216,080,287
JBrowse link
dopamine biosynthetic process from tyrosine term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase IDA
IBA
ISO
IMP
PMID:21873635
MGI:MGI:1860450 (MGI:MGI:2386819|PMID:9520487), (MGI:MGI:72094|PMID:7715703), (MGI:MGI:77787|PMID:7592982)
PMID:11943812
RGD PMID:7592982, PMID:7715703, PMID:9520487, PMID:2427363, PMID:21873635, PMID:11943812, PMID:19584816 MGI:MGI:2386819, MGI:MGI:72094, MGI:MGI:77787, RGD:1580046, RGD:13792537, RGD:5129111, RGD:5130972 NCBI chr 1:216,073,034...216,080,287
Ensembl chr 1:216,073,031...216,080,287
JBrowse link
epinephrine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Pnmt phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase TAS
IEA
IDA
IC
GO_REF:0000041 UniProt PMID:11514309, PMID:7914070, PMID:7503429 GO_REF:0000041, RGD:628457, RGD:4139902, RGD:4139901 NCBI chr10:86,340,893...86,342,501
Ensembl chr10:86,340,940...86,342,858
JBrowse link
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase ISO (PMID:12457228) RGD PMID:12457228 NCBI chr 1:216,073,034...216,080,287
Ensembl chr 1:216,073,031...216,080,287
JBrowse link
melanin biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Asip agouti signaling protein ISO MGI:MGI:1855937 (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913) RGD PMID:7665913 MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr 3:150,492,010...150,579,870
Ensembl chr 3:150,574,473...150,579,870
JBrowse link
G Cited1 Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 1 ISO
ISS
(MGI:MGI:4412464|PMID:11434569)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
UniProt
PMID:11434569 GO_REF:0000024, MGI:MGI:4412464 NCBI chr  X:72,128,996...72,133,692
Ensembl chr  X:72,128,994...72,133,692
JBrowse link
G Dct dopachrome tautomerase ISO MGI:MGI:1856379 (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913) RGD PMID:7665913 MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr15:103,208,174...103,245,033
Ensembl chr15:103,208,258...103,244,494
JBrowse link
G Ddt D-dopachrome tautomerase IEA GO_REF:0000043 UniProt GO_REF:0000043 NCBI chr20:13,827,153...13,829,624
Ensembl chr20:13,827,132...13,831,588
JBrowse link
G Mc1r melanocortin 1 receptor ISO MGI:MGI:1856028 (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913) RGD PMID:7665913 MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr19:56,215,420...56,219,987 JBrowse link
G Myo5a myosin VA ISO
IEA
MGI:MGI:1856004 (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:7665913 GO_REF:0000107, MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr 8:82,038,966...82,156,507
Ensembl chr 8:82,037,977...82,156,617
JBrowse link
G Oca2 OCA2 melanosomal transmembrane protein ISO MGI:MGI:1856114 (MGI:MGI:1202196|PMID:9548375), (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913) RGD PMID:7665913, PMID:9548375 MGI:MGI:1202196, MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr 1:114,661,970...114,987,433
Ensembl chr 1:114,679,537...114,987,433
JBrowse link
G Pmel premelanosome protein ISO MGI:MGI:1857040 (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913) RGD PMID:7665913 MGI:MGI:76308 NCBI chr 7:3,133,347...3,143,827
Ensembl chr 7:3,133,506...3,143,911
JBrowse link
G Trpc1 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 ISO
IEA
(PMID:8126111)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:8126111 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:103,503,982...103,554,905
Ensembl chr 8:103,503,985...103,554,468
JBrowse link
G Tyr tyrosinase ISO
IBA
(PMID:8126111)
PMID:21873635
MGI:MGI:1855976|MGI:MGI:1855978 (MGI:MGI:1202196|PMID:9548375), (MGI:MGI:76308|PMID:7665913)
RGD PMID:7665913, PMID:8126111, PMID:9548375, PMID:21873635 MGI:MGI:1202196, MGI:MGI:76308, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:151,012,598...151,106,802
Ensembl chr 1:151,012,598...151,106,802
JBrowse link
G Tyrp1 tyrosinase-related protein 1 IEA GO_REF:0000043 UniProt GO_REF:0000043 NCBI chr 5:98,387,291...98,406,083
Ensembl chr 5:98,387,291...98,406,083
JBrowse link
melanin biosynthetic process from tyrosine term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dct dopachrome tautomerase ISO (MGI:MGI:3690794|PMID:2169885) RGD PMID:2169885 MGI:MGI:3690794 NCBI chr15:103,208,174...103,245,033
Ensembl chr15:103,208,258...103,244,494
JBrowse link
negative regulation of melanin biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Mfsd12 major facilitator superfamily domain containing 12 ISO (MGI:MGI:5912387|PMID:29025994) RGD PMID:29025994 MGI:MGI:5912387 NCBI chr 7:11,214,832...11,223,713
Ensembl chr 7:11,216,975...11,223,649
JBrowse link
G Opn3 opsin 3 ISO
IEA
(PMID:31097585)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:31097585 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr13:93,716,481...93,746,994
Ensembl chr13:93,716,481...93,746,994
JBrowse link
G Rapgef2 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 ISO
ISS
(MGI:MGI:5499726|PMID:16272156)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
UniProt
PMID:16272156 GO_REF:0000024, MGI:MGI:5499726 NCBI chr 2:177,836,191...178,057,378
Ensembl chr 2:177,836,202...178,057,157
JBrowse link
G Slc24a5 solute carrier family 24 member 5 ISO (MGI:MGI:3775882|PMID:18166528) RGD PMID:18166528 MGI:MGI:3775882 NCBI chr 3:117,335,212...117,354,480
Ensembl chr 3:117,335,212...117,354,480
JBrowse link
G Wnt5a Wnt family member 5A ISO
IEA
(MGI:MGI:5619434|PMID:23569434)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:23569434 GO_REF:0000107, MGI:MGI:5619434 NCBI chr16:4,469,451...4,490,271
Ensembl chr16:4,469,468...4,489,860
JBrowse link
norepinephrine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Atp7a ATPase copper transporting alpha ISO MGI:MGI:1856097|MGI:MGI:1856098 (MGI:MGI:53801|PMID:4405722), (MGI:MGI:53940|PMID:4858102) RGD PMID:4405722, PMID:4858102 MGI:MGI:53801, MGI:MGI:53940 NCBI chr  X:77,076,085...77,193,644
Ensembl chr  X:77,076,106...77,193,644
JBrowse link
G Dbh dopamine beta-hydroxylase TAS
IBA
ISO
ISS
IEA
IMP
PMID:21873635
MGI:MGI:1857556 (MGI:MGI:1203930|PMID:9603211), (MGI:MGI:1332340|PMID:10051631), (MGI:MGI:5787847|PMID:27148966), (MGI:MGI:72180|PMID:7715704)
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:27148966)
GO_REF:0000041
RGD
UniProt
PMID:7715704, PMID:9603211, PMID:10051631, PMID:27148966, PMID:11914591, PMID:21873635, PMID:10573542 GO_REF:0000024, GO_REF:0000041, MGI:MGI:1203930, MGI:MGI:1332340, MGI:MGI:5787847, MGI:MGI:72180, RGD:727567, RGD:13792537, RGD:1625403 NCBI chr 3:5,709,236...5,731,895
Ensembl chr 3:5,709,236...5,731,898
JBrowse link
G Epas1 endothelial PAS domain protein 1 IMP RGD PMID:19457096 RGD:5128877 NCBI chr 6:10,306,508...10,385,239
Ensembl chr 6:10,306,405...10,387,265
JBrowse link
G Gata3 GATA binding protein 3 ISO
ISS
MGI:MGI:2153826 (MGI:MGI:1859081|PMID:10835639)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
UniProt
PMID:10835639 GO_REF:0000024, MGI:MGI:1859081 NCBI chr17:72,419,752...72,452,043
Ensembl chr17:72,429,618...72,450,681
JBrowse link
G Insm1 INSM transcriptional repressor 1 ISO (MGI:MGI:3772428|PMID:18094025) RGD PMID:18094025 MGI:MGI:3772428 NCBI chr 3:140,427,961...140,430,467 JBrowse link
G Kl Klotho IMP RGD PMID:20086041 RGD:10403068 NCBI chr12:942,974...987,206
Ensembl chr12:943,006...987,551
JBrowse link
G Moxd1 monooxygenase, DBH-like 1 IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:22,124,498...22,206,565
Ensembl chr 1:22,124,495...22,206,505
JBrowse link
G Moxd2 monooxygenase, DBH-like 2 IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 4:69,117,477...69,125,972
Ensembl chr 4:69,117,477...69,125,972
JBrowse link
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase ISO (PMID:12457228) RGD PMID:12457228 NCBI chr 1:216,073,034...216,080,287
Ensembl chr 1:216,073,031...216,080,287
JBrowse link
octopamine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dbh dopamine beta-hydroxylase IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 3:5,709,236...5,731,895
Ensembl chr 3:5,709,236...5,731,898
JBrowse link
G Moxd1 monooxygenase, DBH-like 1 IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:22,124,498...22,206,565
Ensembl chr 1:22,124,495...22,206,505
JBrowse link
G Moxd2 monooxygenase, DBH-like 2 IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 4:69,117,477...69,125,972
Ensembl chr 4:69,117,477...69,125,972
JBrowse link
positive regulation of dopamine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Epas1 endothelial PAS domain protein 1 IMP RGD PMID:19457096 RGD:5128877 NCBI chr 6:10,306,508...10,385,239
Ensembl chr 6:10,306,405...10,387,265
JBrowse link
G Park7 Parkinsonism associated deglycase ISO
IEA
ISS
(PMID:19703902)
GO_REF:0000107
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
Ensembl
ParkinsonsUK-UCL
PMID:19703902 GO_REF:0000024, GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:167,982,438...168,004,724
Ensembl chr 5:167,982,439...168,004,724
JBrowse link
G Vps35 VPS35 retromer complex component ISO (MGI:MGI:5694519|PMID:26203154) RGD PMID:26203154 MGI:MGI:5694519 NCBI chr19:27,464,937...27,500,636
Ensembl chr19:27,464,937...27,500,636
JBrowse link
positive regulation of melanin biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Appl1 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 1 ISO (PMID:21291857) RGD PMID:21291857 NCBI chr16:2,560,103...2,602,035
Ensembl chr16:2,563,520...2,602,103
JBrowse link
G Asip agouti signaling protein ISO
IBA
UniProtKB:P07147|UniProtKB:Q60696 (MGI:MGI:5294257|PMID:21949658)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:21949658, PMID:21873635 MGI:MGI:5294257, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 3:150,492,010...150,579,870
Ensembl chr 3:150,574,473...150,579,870
JBrowse link
G Cdh3 cadherin 3 ISO (PMID:23334344) RGD PMID:23334344 NCBI chr19:38,668,957...38,719,801
Ensembl chr19:38,669,230...38,719,677
JBrowse link
G Gipc1 GIPC PDZ domain containing family, member 1 ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:21291857)
UniProt
RGD
PMID:21291857 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr19:24,786,604...24,798,231
Ensembl chr19:24,786,628...24,798,233
JBrowse link
G Opn3 opsin 3 ISO
IEA
(PMID:28842328)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:28842328 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr13:93,716,481...93,746,994
Ensembl chr13:93,716,481...93,746,994
JBrowse link
G Pmel premelanosome protein ISO (MGI:MGI:5294257|PMID:21949658) RGD PMID:21949658 MGI:MGI:5294257 NCBI chr 7:3,133,347...3,143,827
Ensembl chr 7:3,133,506...3,143,911
JBrowse link
G Tyrp1 tyrosinase-related protein 1 ISO (PMID:21996312)
UniProtKB:Q03288|UniProtKB:Q60696 (MGI:MGI:5294257|PMID:21949658)
RGD PMID:21949658, PMID:21996312 MGI:MGI:5294257 NCBI chr 5:98,387,291...98,406,083
Ensembl chr 5:98,387,291...98,406,083
JBrowse link
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in norepinephrine biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hand2 heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 ISO
IEA
(MGI:MGI:4413411|PMID:19008477)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:19008477 GO_REF:0000107, MGI:MGI:4413411 NCBI chr16:36,371,489...36,373,551
Ensembl chr16:36,371,489...36,373,546
JBrowse link
regulation of melanin biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Slc7a11 solute carrier family 7 member 11 ISO MGI:MGI:1857061 (MGI:MGI:3588610|PMID:16037214) RGD PMID:16037214 MGI:MGI:3588610 NCBI chr 2:139,453,774...139,528,479
Ensembl chr 2:139,453,774...139,528,162
JBrowse link
serotonin biosynthetic process term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ddc dopa decarboxylase IDA
IBA
PMID:21873635 RGD
GO_Central
PMID:10027744, PMID:21873635 RGD:5129182, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr14:91,905,919...91,996,816
Ensembl chr14:91,905,919...91,996,774
JBrowse link
G Tph2 tryptophan hydroxylase 2 IEA GO_REF:0000041 UniProt GO_REF:0000041 NCBI chr 7:58,042,279...58,149,220
Ensembl chr 7:58,042,281...58,149,061
JBrowse link
serotonin biosynthetic process from tryptophan term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cyp2d4 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily d, polypeptide 4 IDA RGD PMID:23098818 RGD:11353778 NCBI chr 7:123,599,264...123,608,436
Ensembl chr 7:123,599,266...123,608,436
JBrowse link
G Tph1 tryptophan hydroxylase 1 TAS RGD PMID:12153488 RGD:625621 NCBI chr 1:102,669,868...102,699,442
Ensembl chr 1:102,669,868...102,699,442
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 20027
    metabolic process 12278
      cellular metabolic process 11085
        cellular aromatic compound metabolic process 5715
          phenol-containing compound metabolic process 124
            phenol-containing compound biosynthetic process 49
              (+)-lariciresinol biosynthetic process 0
              (+)-pinoresinol biosynthetic process 0
              (+)-secoisolariciresinol biosynthetic process 0
              (-)-lariciresinol biosynthetic process 0
              (-)-pinoresinol biosynthetic process 0
              (-)-secoisolariciresinol biosynthetic process 0
              2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA biosynthetic process 0
              4-hydroxyphenylacetate biosynthetic process 0
              DIF-1 biosynthetic process 0
              F-9775A biosynthetic process + 0
              F-9775B biosynthetic process + 0
              actinorhodin biosynthetic process 0
              aerobic phenol-containing compound biosynthetic process 0
              anaerobic phenol-containing compound biosynthetic process 0
              asperthecin biosynthetic process + 0
              averantin biosynthetic process 0
              catechol-containing compound biosynthetic process + 27
              diorcinol biosynthetic process + 0
              emericellin biosynthetic process + 0
              emodin biosynthetic process + 0
              endocrocin biosynthetic process + 0
              eugenol biosynthetic process 0
              ferulate biosynthetic process 0
              fonsecin biosynthetic process 0
              funalenone biosynthetic process 0
              gallate biosynthetic process 0
              melanin biosynthetic process + 20
              monodictyphenone biosynthetic process + 0
              neosartoricin biosynthetic process + 0
              novobiocin biosynthetic process 0
              o-orsellinic acid biosynthetic process + 0
              octopamine biosynthetic process 3
              olivetolic acid biosynthetic process 0
              orcinol biosynthetic process + 0
              p-cresol biosynthetic process 0
              phenol biosynthetic process 0
              phenolic phthiocerol biosynthetic process 0
              proanthocyanidin biosynthetic process + 0
              pyochelin biosynthetic process 0
              salicylic acid biosynthetic process + 0
              serotonin biosynthetic process + 4
              shamixanthone biosynthetic process 0
              sinapate biosynthetic process 0
              sinapate ester biosynthetic process + 0
              tyramine biosynthetic process 0
              vanillin biosynthetic process 0
paths to the root

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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.