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Growth hormone directly and indirectly stimulates articular chondrocyte cell growth.

Authors: Tsukazaki, T  Matsumoto, T  Enomoto, H  Usa, T  Ohtsuru, A  Namba, H  Iwasaki, K  Yamashita, S 
Citation: Tsukazaki T, etal., Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1994 Dec;2(4):259-67.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:11550711

Although growth hormone (GH) is known to regulate cartilage growth and differentiation during development, it is still unclear whether the cell growth of articular chondrocytes is stimulated directly by GH or mediated by GH-induced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In the present study, we focused on whether GH directly or indirectly stimulates articular chondrocyte proliferation. Monolayer articular chondrocytes from 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in Ham's F-12/Dulbecco's modified essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by GH was dose-dependent between 0.1 and 1 microg/ml, and the maximum active concentration of GH was 500 ng/ml, which induced a 3.5-fold increase over control values. Anti-IGF-I antiserum neutralized about 80% of GH-induced DNA synthesis. GH stimulated the secretion of IGF-I into the conditioned medium in a dose-responsive manner. To determine whether GH stimulated DNA synthesis directly, we investigated the time-course changes in mRNA expression of IGF-I and the proto-oncogene c-myc. Induction of IGF-I mRNA occurred at 4 h, and reached a maximum level at 12 h, whereas the expression of c-myc mRNA was induced within 4 h, and continued to increase until 72 h after GH treatment. Furthermore, administration of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, resulted in the superinduction of both IGF-I and c-myc mRNAs. These results suggest that early induction of c-myc is due to a direct stimulatory effect of GH, and that long-term induction of c-myc was attributable to an indirect effect of GH in which GH-induced secondary proliferative factors may act in an autocrine/paracrine manner. The superinduction of c-myc gene by cycloheximide also indicates that fresh protein synthesis of an intermediate protein was not required for GH-induced c-myc expression. Western ligand blot analysis of IGF-binding proteins revealed that cultured rat articular chondrocytes produced a predominant 41 kDa and a faint 32 kDa form, and that GH significantly stimulated the secretion of the 41 kDa form without affecting expression of the 32 kDa form. Furthermore, a specific IGF-I binding study suggested that the increase in DNA synthesis induced by GH was not associated with changes in affinity or in the number of IGF-I binding sites. These results support the conclusion that the stimulatory effect of GH was mainly mediated by GH-induced IGF-I production in monolayer rat articular chondrocytes. However, it is likely that GH may also have a direct stimulatory effect by inducing c-myc proto-oncogene expression.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 10059610
Created: 2015-08-20
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2015-08-20
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.