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A nonsense mutation in the HOXD13 gene underlies synpolydactyly with incomplete penetrance.

Authors: Kurban, M  Wajid, M  Petukhova, L  Shimomura, Y  Christiano, AM 
Citation: Kurban M, etal., J Hum Genet. 2011 Oct;56(10):701-6. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2011.84. Epub 2011 Aug 4.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:21814222
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1038/jhg.2011.84

Synpolydactyly 1 (SPD1; OMIM 186000), also known as type II syndactyly, is a dominantly inherited limb malformation that is characterized by an increased number of digits. SPD1 is most commonly caused by polyalanine repeat expansions in the coding region of the HOXD13 gene, which are believed to show a dominant-negative effect. In addition, missense and out-of-frame deletion mutations in the HOXD13 gene are also known to cause SPD, and the mechanism responsible for the phenotype appears to be haploinsufficiency. Here, we analyzed a large consanguineous family from Pakistan with SPD showing a wide variation in phenotype among affected individuals. We performed genetic linkage analysis, which identified a region on chromosome 2 containing the HOXD13 gene. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers suggested segregation of the phenotype with HOXD13 gene with incomplete penetrance. Direct sequencing analysis of HOXD13 gene revealed a nonsense mutation, designated as Q248X. All affected individuals with the severe SPD phenotype are homozygous for the mutation, whereas those with the mild SPD phenotype are heterozygous for the mutation. Furthermore, some unaffected individuals also carry the mutation in the heterozygous state, showing incomplete penetrance. Our results show the first nonsense mutation in the HOXD13 gene underlying a severe form of SPD in the homozygous state, and a milder form of SPD with approximately 50% penetrance in the heterozygous state, most likely because of the production of 50% of protein compared with normal individuals.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 11098032
Created: 2016-06-08
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2016-06-08
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.