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Biosynthesis of anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine by sequential actions of phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase D.

Authors: Sun, YX  Tsuboi, K  Okamoto, Y  Tonai, T  Murakami, M  Kudo, I  Ueda, N 
Citation: Sun YX, etal., Biochem J 2004 Jun 15;380(Pt 3):749-56.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:14998370
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1042/BJ20040031

Anandamide (an endocannabinoid) and other bioactive long-chain NAEs (N-acylethanolamines) are formed by direct release from N-acyl-PE (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine) by a PLD (phospholipase D). However, the possible presence of a two-step pathway from N-acyl-PE has also been suggested previously, which comprises (1) the hydrolysis of N-acyl-PE to N-acyl-lysoPE by PLA1/PLA2 enzyme(s) and (2) the release of NAEs from N-acyllysoPE by lysoPLD (lysophospholipase D) enzyme(s). In the present study we report for the first time the characterization of enzymes responsible for this pathway. The PLA1/PLA2 activity for N-palmitoyl-PE was found in various rat tissues, with the highest activity in the stomach. This stomach enzyme was identified as group IB sPLA2 (secretory PLA2), and its product was determined as N-acyl-1-acyl-lysoPE. Recombinant group IB, IIA and V of sPLA2s were also active with N-palmitoyl-PE, whereas group X sPLA2 and cytosolic PLA2a were inactive. In addition, we found wide distribution of lysoPLD activity generating N-palmitoylethanolamine from N-palmitoyl-lysoPE in rat tissues, with higher activities in the brain and testis. Based on several lines of enzymological evidence, the lysoPLD enzyme could be distinct from the known N-acyl-PE-hydrolysing PLD. sPLA2-IB dose dependently enhanced the production of N-palmitoylethanolamine from N-palmitoyl-PE in the brain homogenate showing the lysoPLD activity. N-Arachidonoyl-PE and N-arachidonoyl-lysoPE as anandamide precursors were also good substrates of sPLA2-IB and the lysoPLD respectively. These results suggest that the sequential actions of PLA2 and lysoPLD may constitute another biosynthetic pathway for NAEs, including anandamide.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 1302902
Created: 2004-11-18
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2004-11-18
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.