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A farnesoid x receptor-small heterodimer partner regulatory cascade modulates tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 and matrix metalloprotease expression in hepatic stellate cells and promotes resolution of liver fibrosis.

Authors: Fiorucci, S  Rizzo, G  Antonelli, E  Renga, B  Mencarelli, A  Riccardi, L  Orlandi, S  Pruzanski, M  Morelli, A  Pellicciari, R 
Citation: Fiorucci S, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Aug;314(2):584-95. Epub 2005 Apr 28.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:15860571
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.084905

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is expressed by and regulates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In the present study, we investigated whether 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6-ECDCA or INT-747), a semisynthetic derivative of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), modulates tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP)-1 and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 expression/activity in HSCs and in the liver of rats rendered cirrhotic by 4-week administration of CCl(4). Exposure of HSCs to FXR ligands increases small heterodimer partner (SHP) mRNA by 3-fold and reduces basal and thrombin-stimulated expression of alpha1(I)collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 by approximately 60 to 70%, whereas it increased matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 activity by 2-fold. In coimmunoprecipitation, electromobility shift, and transactivation experiments, FXR activation/overexpression caused a SHP-dependent inhibition of JunD binding to its consensus element in the TIMP-1 promoter. Inhibition of TIMP-1 expression by SHP overexpression enhanced the sensitivity of HSCs to proapoptogenic stimuli. Administration of 3 mg/kg 6-ECDCA, but not 15 mg/kg ursodeoxycholic acid, resulted in early (3-5-day) induction of SHP and prevention of early up-regulation of TIMP-1 mRNA induced by CCl(4). In the prevention protocol, 4-week administration of 6-ECDCA reduced alpha1(I)collagen, alpha-SMA, and TIMP-1 mRNA by 60 to 80%, whereas it increased MMP-2 activity by 5-fold. In the resolution protocol, administration of 3 mg/kg 6-ECDCA promoted liver fibrosis resolution and increased the apoptosis of nonparenchyma liver cells. By demonstrating that a FXR-SHP regulatory cascade promotes the development of a quiescent phenotype and increases apoptosis of HSCs, this study establishes that FXR ligands may be beneficial in treatment of liver fibrosis.

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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 1600916
Created: 2007-03-30
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2007-03-30
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.