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Molecular basis for hypertension in the "type II variant" of apparent mineralocorticoid excess.

Authors: Li, A  Tedde, R  Krozowski, ZS  Pala, A  Li, KX  Shackleton, CH  Mantero, F  Palermo, M  Stewart, PM 
Citation: Li A, etal., Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Aug;63(2):370-9.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:9683587
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1086/301955

The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a heritable form of hypertension in which cortisol acts as a potent mineralocorticoid. The type I variant results in a severe clinical and biochemical phenotype and arises because of mutations in the gene encoding the type 2 isozyme of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), an enzyme responsible for the peripheral inactivation of cortisol to cortisone. Only mild abnormalities of cortisol metabolism have been found in the type II variant of AME, suggesting that it may be a separate gene defect. In an extensive consanguineous Sardinian pedigree affected with "type II" AME, a novel homozygous point mutation (C945T) was found in the human 11beta-HSD2 gene in four affected individuals. Thirteen family members were heterozygous for the resultant R279C amino acid substitution. The LOD score of linkage of the mutation to the disease was 3.23. Expression of the 11beta-HSD2 mutant cDNA resulted in an enzyme with reduced maximum velocity, but similar substrate affinity, compared with activity of the wild-type cDNA. Affected individuals were >30 years of age and had both mineralocorticoid hypertension and evidence of impaired metabolism of cortisol to cortisone. The heterozygote state was phenotypically normal but was associated with subtle defects in cortisol metabolism. AME represents a spectrum of mineralocorticoid hypertension with severity reflecting the underlying genetic defect in the 11beta-HSD2 gene; classification into distinct subtypes is inappropriate. Hypertensive populations should be screened to identify the prevalence of milder defects in 11beta-HSD2 in patients currently labeled as having "essential" hypertension.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 1625078
Created: 2007-05-18
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2007-05-18
Status: ACTIVE


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