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Insulin activates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways: impairment in insulin resistance owing to defects in insulin signalling.

Authors: Doronzo, G  Russo, I  Mattiello, L  Riganti, C  Anfossi, G  Trovati, M 
Citation: Doronzo G, etal., Diabetologia. 2006 May;49(5):1049-63. Epub 2006 Feb 28.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:16506055
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1007/s00125-006-0156-0

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We previously demonstrated that insulin stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis and secretion via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from humans and from insulin-sensitive lean Zucker fa/+ rats. We also showed that this effect is attenuated in VSMC from insulin-resistant obese Zucker fa/fa rats. As it is not known whether the effects of insulin on VEGF involve activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), we aimed to evaluate: (1) whether insulin modulates HIF-1alpha protein synthesis and activity; (2) the insulin signalling pathways involved; and (3) the role of insulin resistance. METHODS: Using aortic VSMC taken from humans and Zucker rats and cultured in normoxia, the following were evaluated: (1) dose-dependent (0.5, 1, 2 nmol/l) and time-dependent (2, 4, 6 h) effects exerted by insulin on HIF-1alpha content in both nucleus and cytosol, measured by Western blots; (2) insulin effects on HIF-1 DNA-binding activity on the VEGF gene, measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay; and (3) involvement of the insulin signalling molecules in these insulin actions, by using the following inhibitors: LY294002 (PI3-K), PD98059 (extracellular signal regulated kinase [ERK]), SP600125 (Jun N terminal kinase [JNK]), SB203580 (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) and rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin), and by detecting the insulin signalling molecules by Western blots. RESULTS: In aortic VSMC from humans and Zucker fa/+ rats cultured in normoxia insulin increases the HIF-1alpha content in cytosol and nucleus via dose- and time-dependent mechanisms, and HIF-1 DNA-binding activity on the VEGF gene. The insulin-induced increase of HIF-1alpha is blunted by the translation inhibitor cycloheximide, LY294002, PD98059, SP600125 and rapamycin, but not by SB203580. It is also reduced in Zucker fa/fa rats, which present an impaired ability of insulin to induce Akt, ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results provide a biological mechanism for the impaired collateral vessel formation in obesity.

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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 1626318
Created: 2007-08-01
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2007-08-01
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.