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Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 contribute to peroxynitrite-mediated inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.

Authors: Ndengele, MM  Cuzzocrea, S  Esposito, E  Mazzon, E  Di Paola, R  Matuschak, GM  Salvemini, D 
Citation: Ndengele MM, etal., FASEB J. 2008 Sep;22(9):3154-64. Epub 2008 May 22.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:18497304
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1096/fj.08-108159

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), the reaction product of the interaction between superoxide (O(2)(*-)) and nitric oxide (*NO), is a potent proinflammatory and cytotoxic nitrooxidative species. Its role as a mediator of hyperalgesia (clinically defined as an augmented sensitivity to painful stimuli) is not known. In light of the known proinflammatory properties of ONOO(-), our study addressed its potential involvement in the development of hyperalgesia associated with tissue damage and inflammation. Intraplantar injection in rats of the ONOO(-) precursor O(2)(*-) (1 microM) led to the development of thermal hyperalgesia associated with a profound localized inflammatory response. Both events were blocked by L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 3-30 mg/kg), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or by FeTM-4-PyP(5+) [Fe(III)5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin, 3-30 mg/kg], an ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst. These results suggested that locally synthesized ONOO(-) produced in situ by O(2)(*-) and *NO is key in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. The direct link between ONOO(-) and hyperalgesia was further supported by demonstrating that intraplantar injection of soluble ONOO(-) itself (1 microM) similarly led to inflammatory hyperalgesia. ONOO(-) generated by the interaction between exogenous administration of O(2)(*-) and endogenous *NO, or provided by direct injection of ONOO(-), activated the transcription factor NF-kappaB in paw tissues, enhancing expression of the inducible but not the constitutive cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-2 and COX-1, respectively). ONOO(-)-mediated hyperalgesia was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by intraperitoneal injections of indomethacin (10 mg/kg), a nonselective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, or NS398 [N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide; 10 mg/kg] a selective COX-2 inhibitor, as well as by an anti-prostaglandin (PG) E(2) antibody (200 microg). In another established model of inflammation-related hyperalgesia by intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats, inhibition of ONOO(-) with FeTM-4-PyP(5+) (3-30 mg/kg) inhibited the development of hyperalgesia and the release of PGE(2) in paw tissue exudates. Furthermore, FeTM-4-PyP(5+) synergized with indomethacin and NS397 (1-10 mg/kg) to block both hyperalgesia and edema. Taken together, these data show for the first time that ONOO(-) is a potent mediator of inflammation-derived hyperalgesia operating via the COX-to-PGE(2) pathway. These results provide a pharmacological rationale for the development of inhibitors of peroxynitrite biosynthesis as novel nonnarcotic analgesics. The broad implications of our study are that dual inhibition of both ONOO(-) formation and COX activity may provide an alternative therapeutic approach to the management of pain: effective analgesia with reduced side-effects typically associated with the use of COX inhibitors.

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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 2300228
Created: 2008-09-09
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2008-09-09
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.