Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats.

Authors: Rao, JS  Kim, HW  Kellom, M  Greenstein, D  Chen, M  Kraft, AD  Harry, GJ  Rapoport, SI  Basselin, M 
Citation: Rao JS, etal., J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 16;8:101.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:21846384
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-8-101

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1-) infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed brain arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, and synapto-dendritic injury. We recently reported upregulated brain AA metabolism in 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg rats. We hypothesized that these HIV-1 Tg rats also would show upregulated brain inflammatory and AA cascade markers and a deficit of synaptic proteins. METHODS: We measured protein and mRNA levels of markers of neuroinflammation and the AA cascade, as well as pro-apoptotic factors and synaptic proteins, in brains from 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg and control rats. RESULTS: Compared with control brain, HIV-1 Tg rat brain showed immunoreactivity to glycoprotein 120 and tat HIV-1 viral proteins, and significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of (1) the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, (2) the activated microglial/macrophage marker CD11b, (3) AA cascade enzymes: AA-selective Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-IVA, secretory sPLA2-IIA, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, membrane prostaglandin E2 synthase, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and 15-LOX, cytochrome p450 epoxygenase, and (4) transcription factor NF-kappaBp50 DNA binding activity. HIV-1 Tg rat brain also exhibited signs of cell injury, including significantly decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and drebrin, a marker of post-synaptic excitatory dendritic spines. Expression of Ca2+-independent iPLA2-VIA and COX-1 was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 Tg rats show elevated brain markers of neuroinflammation and AA metabolism, with a deficit in several synaptic proteins. These changes are associated with viral proteins and may contribute to cognitive impairment. The HIV-1 Tg rat may be a useful model for understanding progression and treatment of cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients.

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CRRD ID: 5508195
Created: 2011-10-06
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2011-10-06
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.