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Induction of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression by mild hypoxia via a hypoxia response element binding the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in rat hepatocytes.

Authors: Kietzmann, T  Roth, U  Jungermann, K 
Citation: Kietzmann T, etal., Blood. 1999 Dec 15;94(12):4177-85.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:10590062

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary physiological inhibitor of both tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. The balance between plasminogen activators and PAI-1 plays an important role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as atherosclerosis or thrombosis. Because these conditions are associated with hypoxia, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of low O(2) tension on the expression of PAI-1 mRNA and protein using primary cultured rat hepatocytes as a model system. We found that PAI-1 mRNA and protein were induced by mild hypoxia (8% O(2)). The hypoxia-dependent PAI-1 mRNA induction was transcriptionally regulated because it was inhibited by actinomycin D (ActD). Luciferase (LUC) reporter gene constructs driven by about 800 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the rat PAI-1 gene were transiently transfected into primary rat hepatocytes; mild hypoxia caused a 3-fold induction, which was mediated by the PAI-1 promoter region -175/-158 containing 2 putative hypoxia response elements (HRE) binding the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). Mutation of the HRE-1 (-175/-168) or HRE-2 (-165/-158) also abolished the induction by mild hypoxia. Cotransfection of a HIF-1alpha vector and the PAI-1-LUC constructs, as well as gel shift assays, showed that the HRE-2 of the PAI-1 promoter was most critical for induction by hypoxia and HIF-1 binding. Thus, PAI-1 induction by mild hypoxia via a HIF-1 binding HRE in the rat PAI-1 promoter appears to be the mechanism causing the increase in PAI-1 in many clinical conditions associated with O(2) deficiency.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 8547811
Created: 2014-02-24
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2014-02-24
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.