Systemic up-regulation of TLR4 causes lipopolysaccharide-induced augmentation of nasal cytokine release in allergic rhinitis.

Authors: Ekman, AK  Virtala, R  Fransson, M  Adner, M  Benson, M  Jansson, L  Cardell, LO 
Citation: Ekman AK, etal., Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;159(1):6-14. doi: 10.1159/000335196. Epub 2012 Apr 27.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:22555057
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1159/000335196

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a systemic disorder, and it is clinically well recognized that it can be aggravated by infection. Activation of the innate immune system constitutes a critical element in the process. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a part of the innate immune system, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of TLR4 represents bacterial-induced interactions in various model systems. The present study examines how TLR2 and TLR4 expression is affected by symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and if LPS added upon allergen affects nasal cytokine release. METHODS: In patients with pollen-induced allergic rhinitis and healthy non-allergic volunteers, nasal lavage (NAL), peripheral blood and bone marrow were sampled before and during the pollen season. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was determined flow cytometrically. Changes in the TLR receptor expression pattern were evaluated by a nasal challenge with allergen followed by LPS, or vice versa. Symptoms along with cells and cytokines in NAL were analyzed. RESULTS: TLR4 expression increased in leukocytes in NAL, peripheral blood and bone marrow during symptomatic allergic rhinitis. A similar increase was seen for TLR2 in neutrophils in blood. Nasal challenge with allergen followed by LPS augmented the release of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. CONCLUSION: A systemic up-regulation of TLR4 in symptomatic allergic rhinitis may explain why LPS preceded by allergen increases nasal cytokine release.

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CRRD ID: 8552993
Created: 2014-05-02
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2014-05-02
Status: ACTIVE



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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.