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Relaxin inhibits renal myofibroblast differentiation via RXFP1, the nitric oxide pathway, and Smad2.

Authors: Mookerjee, I  Hewitson, TD  Halls, ML  Summers, RJ  Mathai, ML  Bathgate, RA  Tregear, GW  Samuel, CS 
Citation: Mookerjee I, etal., FASEB J. 2009 Apr;23(4):1219-29. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-120857. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:19073841
DOI: Full-text: DOI:10.1096/fj.08-120857

The hormone relaxin inhibits renal myofibroblast differentiation by interfering with TGF-beta1/Smad2 signaling. However, the pathways involved in the relaxin-TGF-beta1/Smad2 interaction remain unknown. This study investigated the signaling mechanisms by which human gene-2 (H2) relaxin regulates myofibroblast differentiation in vitro by examining its effects on mixed populations of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts propagated from injured rat kidneys. Cultures containing approximately 60-70% myofibroblasts were used to determine which relaxin receptors, G-proteins, and signaling pathways were involved in the H2 relaxin-mediated regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA; a marker of myofibroblast differentiation). H2 relaxin only inhibited alpha-SMA immunostaining and collagen concentration in the presence of relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1). H2 relaxin also induced a transient rise in cAMP in the presence of G(i/o) inhibition, and a sustained increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), NO, and cGMP significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of relaxin on alpha-SMA and Smad2 phosphorylation, while the NO inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (hydrochloride) (L-NAME) significantly blocked the inhibitory actions of relaxin on collagen concentration in vivo. These findings suggest that relaxin signals through RXFP1, and a nNOS-NO-cGMP-dependent pathway to inhibit Smad2 phosphorylation and interfere with TGF-beta1-mediated renal myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production.


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CRRD Object Information
CRRD ID: 8553970
Created: 2014-05-08
Species: All species
Last Modified: 2014-05-08
Status: ACTIVE


RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.